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发现出版集团是爱尔兰最新成立的科技出版商之一,其于2004年开始作为大型出版商的服务提供商设立,并在2015年逐步开发自己的综合出版平台,向世界推广开放式的学术研究。 在全球机构学术的帮助下,发现出版集团将专注于为作者提供优质服务,同时保留健全的出版标准和编辑诚信。

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Mansour Mohammed Alqurashi; Youssef Fayez Horaib; Zainab Ali Alabbas; Ahmed Hassan Alsomali; Sarah SameerBin Mohaimeed; Nujud Mohammed Alshehri; Alaa AliAlabbas; Zahra Mohammed Alkhatem;
Abstract: Background: Child abuse is a worldwide problem that affects seriously the health and welfare of children. Parents have a key role to avoid or prevent the exposure of their children to abuse. The study was conducted to assess the awareness about child rights and the most important ways to detect child abuse among the parents and to investigate the risk and protective factors associated with prevalence rates and impact and the parents' role in cases of abuse in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methodology: A Keywords: Child abuse; Battered child syndrome; Child neglect
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Abstract: Background: Anemia is one of the many complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, studies on the prevalence of anemia among CKD patients in Saudi Arabia are very limited. Thus, the present study is aimed to estimate the prevalence and severity of anemia among patients with chronic kidney disease in Prince Mutaib Hospital, Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia.Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted employing patients' records of individuals with chronic kidney disease following up at PrinceKeywords: Anemia; CKD; GFR; Saudi Arabia
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Abstract: Background: The quest for noninvasive biomarkers for fibrosis continues, as liver biopsy is invasive. Thereby, this study aimed to correlate fibrosis score with Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV).Methodology: This was an observational prospective study, including 123 patients from Al-Hada Military Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Patients were enrolled from January 2017 to July 2019. Data were collected related to patients' demographics, diagnosis, HBV viral loaKeywords: Alpha-fetoprotein; Liver fibrosis; Hepatitis B virus; Fibrosis score; Viral load
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Mujahid Abdulrahman Aljohani; Anas Abdulrahman Aljohani; Soliman Masoud Ammer; Jamil Ramadan Aljehany;
Abstract: Background: The menopausal health requires considerable attention because its symptoms can be severe and affect daily, social, and sexual life of females. Thereby, this study aimed to determine menopausal knowledge, attitude, and management among postmenopausal women, and to identify the differences with educational status.Methodology: The current cross-sectional study used a structured questionnaire. The study was done in Madinah. A survey was designed which contained demographic data of particKeywords: Attitude; Knowledge; Menopause; Education level; Postmenopausal women
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Case Report
Abstract: Background: Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy is a rare dystrophy in which there's focal or diffuse thickening of Descemet membrane and endothelial degeneration.Case presentation: A 65-year-old male patient was presented with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy. The right eye was operated for penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) twice because of graft failure. On examination, the left eye showed generalized opacification of the cornea, the lens was cataractous and pupil didn't dilateKeywords: CHED; Penetrating keratoplasty; Phacoemulsification; Iris hook
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Amar Fathi Mohamed Khalifa; Omar Abdullah Alahmari; Mamdouh Alharbi; Abdullah Alruwili; Shalhoub Alqahtani; Omar Alanazi; Fadi Alhalabi; Eqab Alotibi; Abdulmanea Alwayili; Abdullah Aloggael; Abdulellah Almoutairi; Hamad Abdulraazzaq;
Abstract: Background: Around six million people die annually worldwide by tobacco smoking-related diseases, on average smokers die 10 years earlier than non-smokers. The current study was conducted to identify reasons for smoking initiation and barriers of tobacco cessation among Riyadh population.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample size of 389 smokers who were students in Medical Colleges in Riyadh city. The data collection method was interviewer-administered. The data wereKeywords: Smoking; Prevalence; Knowledge; Saudi Arabia
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Review
Meshal Abdullah Alkheraiji; Meshal Mosaeed Gabish; Abdulkarim Abdullah Alzahrani; Mohammad Abdulelah Hakeem; Bandar Aedh Alyami Asma A. Qaud;
Abstract: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder that affects almost all the age groups. Moderate-to-severe anxiety requires medical treatment in addition to psychotherapy in order not to progress to a more severe condition. However, the use of anti-depressant, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for these indications, has been questionable. This review paper was aimed at evaluating the literature on the role of SSRIs in the management of anxiety. The online databases Pubmed, GooKeywords: SSRI; Treatment; Anxiety
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Abdullah Mohammed Qahl; Yazeed Yaser Albedaiwi; Ahmed Mohammed Faqihi; Naif Ali Arishi; Yahya Hassan Zarban; Faredah Abdulallah Hakeem;
Abstract: Background: Analgesics use is a global health care problem that could lead to unnecessary complications and increased healthcare expenditure. Hence, the studies evaluating the use of analgesics are required to avoid these complications. Thus, this survey analysis aimed to explore the level of knowledge as well as the attitude of the population in Saudi Arabia toward the use of analgesics.Methodology: This was a cross-sectional, qualitative prospective study that was carried out in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Analgesics; Knowledge of analgesic; Gastritis; Saudi Arabia
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Abstract: Background: Prevalence of Motor vehicle accidents related injuries and deaths are increasing in children. The proper use of car safety seat (CSS) could help to prevent trauma in young children occurring from motor vehicle accidents. The study aimed to assess the awareness, attitude, and practices related to CSS among parents in Taif city of Saudi Arabia.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested and validated questionnaire which included a total of 500 participants whKeywords: Car safety; Traffic injury; Children; Seat belts
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Research Article
Waad Hameed Altarfawi; Nujud Muteb Alshammari; Hadil Anwar Aljaber; Afrah Saleh K. Alanazi; Kawthar Fawaz Alhamwan; Maha Thiab Alshbiny; Zuhur Naif Alazmi; Alanoud Saud Almatrafi;
Abstract: Background: Despite the increasing success of immunization systems in Saudi Arabia, concerns about the safety of vaccination have increased. While all immunizations can cause symptoms in a few people, but most symptoms are gentle and do not last longer than a couple of days. Caregivers should be aware of post-vaccination complication that they can give the right care to the child after vaccination and if complications happened. The aim of the study was to describe currently available epidemiologKeywords: Vaccination; Side effects; Immunization; Safety
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Research Article
Amar Fathi Mohammed Khalifa; Omar Abdullah Al-Ahmari; Saud Fahad Abdul-Majeed; Mohammad Fahad Al-Zahrani; Mohammed Bader M. Al-Saleem; Abdul-Rahman Mohammed Al-Mojally;
Abstract: Background: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State are the most commonly encountered diabetic decompensation emergencies. Thereby, this study was conducted to determine the presentation and management of diabetic coma cases attending the Emergency Rooms (ERs), also, to investigate their awareness about the difference between the outpatient clinic and ERs, and their evaluation of the provided services in the ERs of Riyadh city, central Saudi Arabia.Methodology: It was a Keywords: Diabetic coma; Hypoglycemic; Hyperglycemia; Emergency rooms; Awareness
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Research Article
Saleh Mayoof Al Osaimi; Talal Saud Al Thobaiti; Sarah Hamid Abuduruk; Mohammad Abdullah Alshareef; Hajer Abdullah Al Wagdani;
Abstract: Background: Epiphora is a medical condition where a patient suffers from excessive tearing due to the blockage in the nasolacrimal system. Our study evaluates the use of stent and drill on the success rate, recurrence rate of symptoms, and the duration of dacryocystorhinostomy operation.Methodology: We have summarized the cases of 86 patients from both Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology departments, Suffering from epiphora and underwent dacryocystorhinostomy. The results were further categorized bKeywords: Dacryocystorhinostomy; Epiphora; Endoscopic endonasal DCR; Bone drill; Bicanalicular silicone stenting; Otolaryngology; Ophthalmology
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Abstract: Background: Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning approach used in diabetic patients who focus on carbohydrates as the primary nutrient, affecting postprandial glycemic response. As diabetes mellitus affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, thus patients should monitor carbohydrate intake and eat a heart-healthy diet using nutrition labels. The study aims to test the reliability and validity of Health habits counseling questionnaire (HHCQ) in order to assess the carbohydrate counting skills, Keywords: Reliability and validity; Carbohydrate counting skills; Knowledge of heart-healthy foods; Nutrition label reading; Diabetics
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Review
Abdulaziz Dhafer Algarni; Wejdan Talal Almutairi; Asawir Mohammed AlQurashi; Esraa Abdulrahman Alshehrani; Wijdan Turki Almrzouqi; Hussain Ali Alhazmi;
Abstract: Heart failure (HF) is a disorder that affects at least a minimum of 26 million humans over the world, and its prevalence keeps growing. HF health expenses are large and will elevate dramatically with an older populace. Despite the progress in treatment strategies and prevention, death rate and morbidity remain rising. This study included all the studies which focused and reported the uses of diuretics in HF. A filtration procedure was used to remove duplicates, irrelevant publications. The onlinKeywords: Heart failure; Diuretic therapy; Loop diuretics; Thiazide diuretics; Potassium-sparing diuretics; Diuretic resistance
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Research Article
Abstract: Background: In Saudi Arabian society, the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is the most preferred method of contraception due to its accessibility and reversibility. However, as OCPs are over-the-counter medications, issues related to their inappropriate usage have risen, which can limit their efficacy. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the women’s knowledge and perceptions about the use and safety of oral contraceptives in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conKeywords: Oral contraceptive; Knowledge and beliefs; Saudi Arabian women; Pills
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Research Article
Mohammad Eid Mahmoud Mahfouz; Qasem Muidh Alharthi; Mai Soud Althobaiti; Amal Saleh Alfaqeeh; Norah Khalid Alosimi; Wejdan Ali Alshehri; Ahmed Hamed Alsufyani;
Abstract: Background: Lung cancer is a global burden that represents a leading cancer diagnosis universally. Prevention of lung cancer can be achieved to a great extent through controlling risk factors. However, risk factors of lung cancer are still not well explored in the Saudi community. This survey analysis aimed to evaluate epidemiology and risk factors of lung cancer among general population in different areas in Saudi Arabia.Methodology: A self-administered structured questionnaire was sent to the Keywords: Lung cancer; Smoking; Risk; Saudi Arabia
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Review
Abstract: Migraine is a headache disabling disorder; it is globally underdiagnosed and undertreated. The current study aimed at reviewing the diagnosis and management of chronic migraine. The online databases PubMed and Google Scholar were used to perform a literature search for publications published between 2014 and 2017, without any date or language restrictions. We used a combination of relevant search terms "chronic migraine, prevalence, risk factors, management, treatment, diagnosis." We independentKeywords: Chronic migraine; Diagnosis; Management; Prevalence
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Waleed Alsowayan; Ahad Mesfer Halzaa; Sarah Ali Alatwi; Afaf Nasser Hamoud Alokayli; Ghusoon Fathi Al-Moaibed; Maram Saidan Saad Alharbi; Afnan Abdulraheem Ali;
Abstract: Background: Inappropriate and excessive use of antibiotics is associated with an increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The present study investigated the role of knowledge and use of antibiotics toward Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) across the population of Saudi Arabia under the general objective of understanding the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward antibiotics use in respiratory tract infections among adult Saudi population, Saudi Arabia, 2018-2019.Methodology: A Keywords: Knowledge; Attitude; Practice; Antibiotic use; Upper respiratory tract infections
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Research Article
Ayman O. Nasr; Fatimah Mohammed Alsaeed; Zahra Ali Al-Safwani; Sarah Abdullah Alsameen; Zaynab Ali Al-Qallaf; Nora Tamim Alothman;
Abstract: Background: Trauma is considered as a public health issue. It has a huge impact worldwide and it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Severe traumatic injuries are related to the extent of physiological and anatomical disruptions that are affected by various factors. We aimed at this study to compare the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) to the regular clinical parameters to evaluate the extent and severity of trauma and their relation to the differenKeywords: Trauma; Outcome; Resuscitation; Severity; Injury; Score
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Research Article
Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed; Ethar Abed Alsulami; Amirah Eid Salem Alshammari; Maha Qasem Malhan Almutairi; Alanoud Mansour Ayed Albalawi; Abdullah Abdulhadi Hammad Alharbi; Dalal Ayedh Helaal Al-Harbi;
Abstract: Background: Skin diseases are a very common group of diseases and few of them can spread easily between individuals which make the person under fear and stress. Furthermore, few of them can also affect the obvious skin and this can affect the self-esteem of the individual. The prevalence of skin diseases varies among different regions, enough knowledge about skin diseases will have an impact on their prevalence. The present study was aimed to assess the knowledge and awareness of the general popKeywords: Knowledge; Population; Skin disease; Hail
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Research Article
Abstract: Background: Hearing is important for language development in children, especially during the first 2 years of life. Hearing loss (HL) during this critical period may have a negative impact on speech, language, academic, and socio-emotional development. Therefore, maternal knowledge of the risk factors associated with neonatal HL has a significant impact as most risk factors are preventable. The current review paper aimed at investigating the maternal knowledge and attitudes regarding the risk faKeywords: Neonatal; Hearing loss; Screening; Maternal knowledge; Saudi Arabia; Al-Ahsa
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Review
Abdulrahman Mosaid Alolyyan; Ahmad Yousef Aljuraifani; Hamad Mohammad Aloraini; Abdullah Ahmad Alhatlani; Abdulmajeed Abdulrazaq Alzahrani; Abdullah Abdulaziz Almuhaymidi; Yassin Hassan Alzubaidi;
Abstract: Although the gastric sleeve is a commonly performed procedure to treat morbid obesity, long-term complications represent a challenge for this procedure. Gastroesophageal reflux is an example of these complications, which is under-evaluated in medical literature. This review article aimed at evaluating the literature on the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease after gastric sleeve surgery. Medical databases were examined thoroughly to explore the eligible articles for inclusion. Twenty-tKeywords: GERD; Gastric sleeve; Postoperative; Complications
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Research Article
Abstract: Background: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is one of the leading causes of death around the world. It is a major life-threatening emergency with high mortality which needs immediate intervention. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) plays a fundamental role in the survival of SCA. Studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) show that only a few victims of SCA receive CPR. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge and attitude about CPR among secondary school students in Al Ahsa, KSA.MethodologKeywords: Awareness; Basic life support; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Male students; Female students; Secondary school students
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Research Article
Abdullah Nasser Alomair; Dania Ghazi Felemban; Mohannad Sami Felemban; Jameel Abdullah Awadain; Ammar Saud Altowairqi; Nawaf Fawzan Alfawzan; Fatimah Mohammed Almazayen; Abdulrahman Jalwi Korkoman; Nawaf Saad Alrusayyis;
Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the most common of all female cancers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aims to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice toward Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and also to explore the knowledge about breast cancer, among Saudi female students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh.Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 422 female students at KSU by using a self-administered questionnaire.Results: The study showed that the maKeywords: Breast cancer; Breast self-examination; Riyadh
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Abstract: Background: Food allergy is a common life-threatening condition that can affect the whole families' well-being.The aim of this study was to estimate the awareness of mothers of allergic children about food allergy and to estimate the prevalence of food allergy among children in Taif city, Saudi Arabia.Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted on 400 mothers from Taif city. Data were collected through a self-reported modified questionnaire which was distributed online from September 2018Keywords: Food; Allergy; Knowledge; Awareness mothers; Taif
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Research Article
Saif Ahmad Shamshuddin Ahmed; Yazzan Mohammed Alotaibi; Sulaiman Ibrahim Alayed; Omar Mohammed Al Alshaykh; Othman Majed Alothman; Alanoud Abdulkarim Alhumaidi;
Abstract: Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic abdominal pain associated with discomfort and altered bowel movements without any structural or biochemical abnormality. This study aims to 1) assess the prevalence of IBS among medical students and 2) perform descriptive and correlational analyses between IBS prevalence and different social and demographic parameters.Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2019 and January 2020 at the Faculty of MediKeywords: Prevalence; Irritable bowel syndrome; Medical students; Abdominal pain; Risk; Saudi Arabia
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Research Article
Yagoub Alyami; Khames Alzahrani; Amal Masmali; Alaa Abulaban; Jameel Abdullah Qahwaji; Wafa Hussain Faqehi; Elham Alqahtani;
Abstract: Background: Dental fear (DF) is a normal emotional reaction to one or more specific threatening stimuli within the dental situation. Dental phobia represents a severe type of dental anxiety (DA) and is characterized by persistent anxiety in relation to either discernible situations/objects (e.g., drilling and injections) or dental situations in general. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of DF and anxiety and the most common causes of dental phobia among the public.Methodology: A cross-Keywords: Dentophobia; Dental anxiety; Dental visit
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Review
Raed Abdullah Ali Alharthi; Fatimah Talat A. Howladar; Abdullah Ali Saeed Alzahrani; Eman Mohammed Ahmed Babader; Amjed Abed Abdulrahman Alazwari; Salman Abdulhafez Alzaidi; Asawir Mohammed Al Qurashi;
Abstract: Chest pain can be caused by both non-life-threatening and life-threatening causes. The first step that should be performed on admission is to prevent the presence of life-threatening conditions. This study aimed to overview chest pain prevalence, causes, and diagnosis. In this review, an online searching process was involved to obtain articles related to our subject to write the current review. The searching process was through scientific websites using several keywords. Articles were selected aKeywords: Chest pain; Causes; Prevalence; Diagnosis
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Research Article
Hesham Mohammed Ahmed Hamaly; Mohammed Abdu Mohammed Jawahy; Moath Abdullah Yahya Qadri; Abdulrahman Yahya Ahmad Alqasem; Mohammed Ali Jabril Faqihi;
Abstract: Background: Healing of surgical wounds by secondary intention (SWHSI) can be difficult and costly to manage. This survey aimed to assess the prevalence of SWHSI, to characterize the etiology, duration, and management of these secondary wound healings among patients with open surgical wounds, and to investigate the characteristics of patients with SWHSI in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Our target population was patients older than 17 years in Jazan, SaudKeywords: Surgical wounds healing; Primary and secondary intentions; Dressing type
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Research Article
Abdullah Faisal Shalabi; Ohood Abdulraouf Shrouro; Rahaf Hameed Sibaa; Shrouk Bander Alalida; Nawal Zayed Alammar; Faisal Abdullah Almoumen; Bakur Kamil Tamim; Yaseen Saddiq Natto; Rawan Eid Alamri; AlKhalifah Mohammed Abdulaziz;
Abstract: Background: Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects physical and mental development. It is the most prevalent chromosomal disorder. The worldwide incidence of this syndrome is 1 in every 1,000 births and increases exponentially with the maternal age. This study aims to assess the awareness level toward Down syndrome among females attending primary healthcare centers.Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 402 females in primary healthcare centers. Data were Keywords: Down syndrome; Awareness; Saudi Arabia
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